¿Blanquearía un referéndum el totalitarismo independentista?

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President Mas a la reunió dels partits proconsulta - Convergència Democràtica de Catalunya
President Mas a la reunió dels partits proconsulta - Convergència Democràtica de Catalunya

El independentismo catalán, el vasco e incluso Podemos proclaman el “derecho a decidir” como es sumun de la democracia. Los ciudadanos tienen derecho a decidir, aunque no sepan qué es lo que están decidiendo, aunque el ejercicio de ese supuesto derecho vulnere otros más legítimos aun que el que se reclama y a pesar que el supuesto “derecho” se oponga frontalmente a todo el conglomerado jurídico y democrático nacional e internacional.

Un referéndum por sí mismo no es algo democrático. Depende de en que condiciones se haga y que es lo que pretenda. Francisco Franco realizó sendos refrendos en 1947 y en 1966 y esos no hizo del “Generalísimo” el paladín de la democracia moderna. Lo mismo ocurrió con Augusto Pinochet en 1978 cuando Ni que decir tiene que ambos ganaron sus consultas por abrumadora mayoría.

No le ocurrió lo mismo a D. Augusto diez años después, cuando los chilenos decidieron que ya habían tenido suficiente con diecisiete años de su mandato. Curiosamente este último plebiscito convocado por el dictador está contemplado en la vigente constitución chilena, que data de 1980. La dictadura cubana también ha recurrido al refrendo en varias ocasiones. Y no sólo los citados. Muchos países dictatoriales o con regímenes autoritarios han recurrido al plebiscito y el referéndum en muchas ocasiones como un intento de legitimarse, a pesar de no cumplir los requisitos mínimos de libertad y democracia.

Los resultados de todas estas consultas son difícilmente calificables como democráticos. Y no lo son porque para que un referéndum sea homologado internacionalmente ha de cumplir unos requisitos mínimos, y ninguno de los citados los cumplía. Como tampoco los cumplirá, bajo ninguna circunstancia, el hipotético referendo que pretenden convocar los independentistas catalanes. Y explicaré por qué.

No hace falta ser jurista para entender el documento signado por el Consejo de Europa promovido por la Comisión Europea para la Democracia a Través del Derecho, más conocida como la Comisión de Venecia, y titulado Código de Buenas Prácticas sobre Referendos. Los independentistas catalanes y partidarios del “derecho a decidir” como Podemos o Izquierda Unida, prefieren ignorar los apartados II y III de este código al completo.

Obvian, por ejemplo, que el apartado III.1 del Código, Estado de derecho, estipula textualmente que “El uso de los referendos debe cumplir con el sistema legal en su totalidad, y especialmente con las normas procedimentales. En particular, los referendos no pueden celebrarse si la Constitución o una ley conforme a ésta no los estipula, por ejemplo, cuando el texto sometido a referéndum es una cuestión de competencia exclusiva del Parlamento”.

Sólo este punto invalidaría ya cualquier intento de celebrar un referéndum de independencia. No sólo porque la Constitución no estipula que se pueda realizar una consulta en tal sentido, sino porque la propia consulta sería contraria al sistema legal español. Abundando en esto el punto III.3 dice “Los textos sometidos a referéndum deben ser acordes a toda ley superior (principio de jerarquía de las normas)”. Es decir, no se puede someter a referéndum ningún texto que sea contrario a la Constitución.

A todo esto, el Código de Buenas Prácticas sobre Referendos incluye requisitos de imparcialidad de las instituciones que intervengan en el proceso e igualdad de oportunidades y financiación tanto para los que están a favor como en contra de lo consultado, hechos que evidentemente no se dan con la actual composición de la Generalitat de Catalunya.

Al pie de esta reflexión incluyo el enlace al texto del citado Código para que el lector no hipnotizado por los promotores del “prusés” puedan comprobar lo alejado y poco democrático que es el recurso al referéndum, en cualquier caso.

Distraer a la sociedad catalana con un referéndum ilegal, contrario a los estándares internacionales y evidentemente antidemocrático ha de tener razones derivadas que a muchos no se les escapan y que puede tener que ver con esconder el inmenso negocio en que algunos, los menos, han convertido todo este maremágnum independentista.

 

Código de Buenas Prácticas sobre Referendos:  http://www.venice.coe.int/webforms/documents/default.aspx?pdffile=CDL-AD(2007)008rev-spa

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